This paper examines the role of natural resources in the sustainable economic development of Afghanistan. We analyze Dutch disease theory and its implication for the case of Afghanistan. Additionally, we apply the Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) strategy for effective resource management and avoidance of Dutch disease. CBNRM will benefit all stakeholders by engaging them in the decision-making and implementation process. We describe historical lessons learned are by other countries with abundant natural resources to support sustainable development. We describe various ways in which natural resources can be used to serve the best interest of Afghanistan in general as well as distinct Afghan communities.